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Subject: MADZHABS (School of Thoughts)
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kekasih 7.11.10 - 04:36pm
Schools of Thought
Development and Evolution

Main Sources for this chapter:
AlSaadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar.
Manaaqib Abu Hanifa, AlMakki.
Manaaqib Malik, AlSayooti.
Tabaqat AlShafi'iyya.
Mus'nad Ahmad (Ahmad Ibn Hanbal).

kekasih 7.11.10 - 04:37pm
No Schools of Thought ever existed in Islam at the time of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Neither his exemplary practices nor his Hadith (the Sunnah) were put in writing during his lifetime. After the death of the Prophet (pbuh) many of the prominent Sahaaba (Companions of the Prophet (pbuh) adhered to Imam Ali's explanation of the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh). The number of such luminous personalities increased gradually, and came to be known as the Devotees of the teachings of the Prophet (pbuh) as passed down by Ali. They were named AlKhaassah, meaning the elite, the distinctive, or the special. In Arabic they were referred to as AlShi'a. The rest of the Muslims were referred to as AlAammah, meaning the general public or the common man. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 04:38pm
When Mu'awiya became the Khalifa (ruler), he promoted the term AlJama'ah (the throng of the society) to gain support for himself among the people. About 150 years later, the term Jama'ah was modified (by people conforming to Abbasi government policy) in an attempt to fight off Ahlul Bayt's enormous influence in the society. Later the term Jama'ah was modified to AlSunnah wal Jama'ah . The term of Sunnah wal Jama'ah was prevalent during the 3rd century H. when the Schools of Thought in Islam were in a flux but were more or less consolidating.
Later in the 3rd century H. the term was modified again, and rather than calling it AlSunnah wal Jama'ah, it was abbreviated to Ahlul Sunnah . This became a general term for the four Sunni Schools of Thought. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 04:39pm
By the year 250H the four Sunni Schools of Thought were popularized and patronized by the Abbasi government, as well as by their own enthusiasts, thus spreading in various areas of the Islamic Ummah at variable speed. The existing Schools of Thought by this stretch of time were:
Ja'fari, as headed by Imam AlSaadiq.
Hanafi, as headed by Abu Hanifa, AlNa'maan.
Maaliki, as headed by Malik Ibn Anas.
Shafi'i, as headed by Ibn Idrees AlShafi'i.
Hanbali, as headed by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 04:39pm
Outstanding among the vanished Schools of Thought were:
Madh'hab of AlThawri renowned for 2 centuries and could trace its pathway to Imam AlSaadiq's Institute.
Madh'hab of Ibn U'yainah, renowned for 3 centuries, and could trace its pathway to Imam AlSaadiq's Institute.
Madh'hab of Aw'zaa'i, followed for more than one century.
Madh'hab of Dawood Ibn Ali AlDhaahiri, followed for several centuries. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 04:44pm
SHI'I: A Shi'i is a person who is a devotee of only the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as passed down by Ahlul Bayt. Ahlul Bayt are the direct family of Muhammad (pbuh), and a Shi'i regards their teaching of the Prophet's Sunnah as the most authentic and accurate. In brief a Shi'i sees himself as the Devotee of Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and nothing else and the Fiqh laid down by Ahlul Bayt. A Shi'i believes in Imamah, that the 12 Imams were Divinely Commissioned, and they were specified by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). He also believes in Ismah (that the Prophets and the Designated Imams are shielded by Allah from: a) Sin, b) Religious Error, and c) Forgetfulness). *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 04:45pm
SUNNI: A Sunni is a person who follows mostly the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as passed down by the teachings of Sahaaba and Scholars after the Prophet (pbuh). Sunnah of some Khulafaa is said to be included in their teachings. In brief a Sunni sees himself as following the Sunnah as the Sahaaba and certain scholars had specified and the Fiqh as laid by the head of the particular Madh'hab. A Sunni does not believe in Imamah. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 04:46pm
The Shi'a School
For the first 150 years after the Prophet (pbuh) the only evolving School of Thought was the Shi'a school as passed down by Imam Ali, and the chain of narration as the Golden Chain of Narration.[1] At that period the Golden Chain of Narration consisted of Ali, AlHasan, AlHusain, Zainul Abideen, AlBaaqir, and AlSaadiq all of whom are the direct lineage of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). This chain narrated Hadith and explained Islam with each Imam referring the narration by way of his father directly up to the Prophet (pbuh). For instance, Imam AlSaadiq used to say My narration is the narration of my father, and his is that of his father and so on, all going up to Ali who narrated directly from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)[2].
Those who followed this information (called Shi'a) would acknowledge narrations by other sources, as long as those narrations were confirmed by Ahlul Bayt [be they Hadith or examples of the Prophet (pbuh)].
Because of political predicaments with the rulers, and because Ahlul Bayt took the government of the time as invalid (unlawful) from Islamic point of view, there developed a boiling turmoil caused by the direct collision first with the government of Benu Umayya then with that of Benu Abbas. The governments were very eager to seek and enroll the support of Ahlul Bayt, but Ahlul Bayt adamantly refused supporting them, since genuine Islamic teachings and their consciousness of Allah, (Taq'wa) prevented Ahlul Bayt from playing politics with Islam. Because of their refusal to acknowledge the legitimacy of the Khalifa or his government, Ahlul Bayt and their devotees were exposed to tremendous harassment if not nearpersecution at the hands of some Khalifas and their administration.
When the government of Benu Umayya became weak, AlSaadiq saw a golden opportunity, and he was the first to be able to freely pass down the teachings of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as his family had taught him. Thus the basis of the Ja'fari (Shi'i) School of Thought crystallized. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 04:47pm
Head of Ja'fari Madh'hab: 83H148H
Imam Ja'far AlSaadiq, the sixth descendant in the lineage of the Prophet (pbuh), was a charismatic leader of the highest integrity, whose piousness was acknowledged by both friends and enemies. The knowledgeseekers rushed in large numbers to Medina to learn at his hands. They left family, homes, businesses, went through the hazards of travel, to live in Medina for variable periods of time as needed, just for the sake of learning firsthand in the Islamic Institute of Ahlul Bayt headed by AlSaadiq. Some stayed for two years such as Abu Hanifa, others stayed much longer, while others moved to Medina permanently.
Intellectuals of various levels flocked to him, more so during Ramadhan or Haj times. He was the repository of Islamic knowledge (I'lm) the one sought after by people for Hadith narration, by the Fiqh specialists, the forerunners of intellectuals, as well as by the ordinary seekers of knowledge.
People were spellbound by the depth of Imam AlSaadiq's thinking, and mesmerized by the way he an*lyzed Fiqh inquiries. He uttered numerous Hadiths, in the thousands, quoting the Prophet (pbuh) very often and in every facet of life. He talked much about Islamic ethics and mannerism, integrity, goodness of character, and acts of worship, among other things. He contested and argued with Ghulaat, Khariji, Murji'ah, Mu'tazila, Jabriah, Qadariyah, and the Zandeeqs (see glossary of this chapter).

kekasih 7.11.10 - 04:50pm
Growth of the Institute
During AlSaadiq's time the Institute of learning by Ahlul Bayt grew very large as did the number of its students. It was similar to a university, but the dean, professor, the religions head, and the tutor were one, and that was Imam AlSaadiq. He held the discussions at his home, where the students were not only his apprentices but also his guests. AlSaadiq's house was perpetually busy with discussions and consultations, and the household was trained to give the best treatment to its guests.
Discussions were also held in the Grand Mosque of Medina and during Haj time the discussions were conducted near the Ka'ba in Mecca, when seekers of knowledge flocked to him in large numbers for discussions, questioning, and clarification of Islamic inquiries, concepts and beliefs.
The scholars who attended AlSaadiq's school wrote books, taught others, and traveled to distant Islamic territories to spread the Hadiths and other Islamic matters; quoting Al-Saadiq extensively.
Over the years as many as 4,000 scholars graduated at his hand, these were the scholars recorded by name who had quoted him.[3] There were a multitude of others who attended but did not quote him.
To hear at his hands about 1,000 student scholars hailed from Iraq (Kufa and Basrah). A good many hailed from Khurasan of Persia, also attending the Institute, despite the thousands of miles between the two areas. The same was also true of Egypt and Yemen. Even Syria, saw 10 scholars graduate at the hand of the Institute.[4] *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 04:57pm
As the Institute grew it branched out in other areas such as Kufa, Basrah, Mecca, and Qum.
AlSaadiq formed groups for training in the art of argument. Many of his brilliant students became famous, well known for the convincing way they presented their point of view. Prominent among these were Hisham, AlThawri, Ibn U'yainah, and Mu'min AlTaaq to name a few.
Subjects discussed consisted of some of the following:
* Sciences of the Quran and Tafseer, foremost on the agenda, and so were Fiqh and Jurisprudence since there were numerous queries and questions that needed Fiqh Ah'kaam (edict).
* Seerah of the Prophet (pbuh), AlSaadiq added a great deal of detail about the Prophet's Sunnah and the manner the Prophet lived, and was always ready to answer any questions in that regard.
* Hadith, thousands of Hadiths were quoted and categorized and put into writing. The Hadiths were quoted 12 centuries later in the Books of Sihaah AlSittah as these were aut d.
* Islamic philosophy was dealt with long before anyone knew about the Greek philosophy.
* Science of Kalaam, started by Imam Ali, the art of theological logic was vastly expanded by Imam AlSaadiq.
* Chemistry, and the Sciences of Biology began to gain importance and though they were in the embryonic stage, they had their beginning at this timeperiod.
* Arabic Language, Grammar and literary works had their share of studies at this stage too. Added to this was the scholarly discussion of Arabic literature and poetry .
AlSaadiq encouraged his students to write and author books for the benefit of others. Knowing human nature, Imam AlSaadiq was afraid the enrollees of the Institute would soon forget, misquote, add to or subtract from what he said, therefore he encouraged them to put things in writing right away. He himself did not have time to write, but his students turned into fluent and prolific writers. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:02pm
Books Written
The recorded books written by the graduates of the Institute were numerous, 400 of them stand out, later they were called the 400 Usool.[5] These books were categorized about numerous subjects of Ah'kaam, basic beliefs, and manner of worship, among other subjects. They existed for many centuries and were quoted by many scholars of various generations. In addition to the above, books in Hadith, Islamic philosophy, science of AlKalaam, Tafseer, Literature, Ethics, etc. were also written by the graduates of Al-Saadiqs Institute and were sought after and often referred to by later scholars.
Two of the founders of other schools of Fiqh, i.e., the Hanafi and Maaliki, had the privilege of directly acquiring knowledge from Imam AlSaadiq. They were proud of their affiliation. The heads of the other two Madh'habs (Shafi'i, and Hanbali) were equally grateful for their affiliation with AlSaadiq by way of his students; for they were born after AlSaadiq had died.
Finally, Malik Ibn Anas (the head of the Maaliki Madh'hab) described AlSaadiq as follows:
''I used to attend discourses given by Ja'far AlSaadiq, who most of the time had a cheerful look and serene countenance, but whenever the Prophet's name was mentioned AlSaadiq's color would immediately become pale [out of awe].
I frequently attended his discourses over a long period of time and often saw him either praying, fasting, or reading the Holy Quran. I never saw him talking about Allah's Messenger (pbuh) without him being in a state of Wudu.'' *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:03pm
The Sunni Schools

AlMadh'hab AlHanafi
AlMadh'hab AlHanafi was the product of the Fiqh rules and regulations as taught by Abu Hanifa. As in other Islamic Schools of Thought Abu Hanifa's Fiqh deals with tawhid, elements of faith, elements of worship (pillars of Islam), the halal and haram, ethics, dealing with other people (Mu'aamalat).

FEATURES of AlMadh'hab AlHanafi
The AlHanafi School of Thought tends to put more emphasis on Qiyas (Analogy) and Raa'y (personal opinion) than an emphasis on Hadith choices, and the deductions there from. It does not acknowledge the Imamah of Ahlul Bayt. The Hanafi School of Thought began its popularity in the last quarter of the second century Hijrah.

Head of AlMadh'hab AlHanafi: 80H150H
Abu Hanifa was born in 80H, grew up to be brilliant and inquisitive; he was a good business man, in charge of an enterprise dealing in the silk industry. He was the employer of many men, managing his enterprise in Kufa well. Abu Hanifa's keen interest in researching Islamic sciences led him to Basrah many times.[6] At first both AlHasan AlBasri and Abu Hanifa were associated with Murji'ah philosophy but later on Abu Hanifa dissociated himself from the movement. During his youth Abu Hanifa visited Hijaz to have a dialog with Imam Muhammad AlBaaqir (the father of AlSaadiq).
The brother of AlBaaqir, Zaid Ibn Ali, was revered for his Islamic learning. Zaid Ibn Ali revolted against the oppression of Benu Umayya government in 121H, and Abu Hanifa encouraged people to join and support Zaids revolt. Once the revolt was put down, the 41 year old Abu Hanifa was put in jail because of his support of Zaid. Shortly after, Abu Hanifa escaped from jail and left for Medina to join AlSaadiq's discourses and teachings at the Institute of Ahlul Bayt.
Abu Hanifa's experience was unique at the Institute, whereby his tutoring took two years. He referred to those years saying:

Were it not for the two years, Abu Hanifa would have gone astray,
for such was the Institute's influence on his views, Fiqh, an*logy, and the manner of thinking.[7]
Abu Hanifa was a lover of Ahlul Bayt, and he supported the revolts lead by their devotees. Besides his support of the revolt by Zaid Ibn Ali against Benu Umayya (when as a result Abu Hanifa was put in jail), Abu Hanifa also supported the revolt lead by Muhammad Dhul Nafs AlZakiya and his brother Ibrahim, against Benu Abbas during the Khilaafah of AlMansoor. Abu Hanifa urged people to join and parti te in the revolt saying, He who is killed fighting on the side of Muhammad Dhul Nafs AlZakiya will be parallel to the one who has fought in Badr Battle against the infidels. When his writings were later discovered Abu Hanifa became a suspect in the eyes of Khalifa AlMansoor.
At a later time, and in a move to discredit AlSaadiq, Khalifa AlMansoor asked Abu Hanifa to quiz AlSaadiq with forty Fiqh most complex queries. Though obliging to AlMansoor's dictates, Abu Hanifa became mesmerized by Imam AlSaadiq's answers to the queries and he acknowledged the uniqueness of the Imam in knowledge. Consequently, AlMansoors move to discredit AlSaadiq misfired, discrediting himself instead.[8]
Abu Hanifa had tutored 36 students to become scholars in Islam. Particularly famous among them were Ibn AlHudhayl, Abu Yusuf, Muhammad AlSheybani, and AlLu'lu'i.
Though 3 years older than AlSaadiq, Abu Hanifa died in 150H two years after AlSaadiq's death. Abu Hanifa is claimed to have died in prison or soon after he was released, because of poisoning by Khalifa Al-Mansoor. It is thought that Khalifa AlMansoor had put the aging Abu Hanifa in jail because of either not agreeing with AlMansoor's dictates, or that AlMansoor discovered the support Abu Hanifa gave to the revolt by Muhammad Dhul Nafs AlZakiya who was devotee of Ahlul Bayt. If this was true then Abu Hanifa died in support of the cause of Ahlul Bayt against oppression.[9]

HIGHLIGHTS of AlMadh'hab AlHanafi
AlMadh'hab AlHanafi took off after Abu Hanifa died in 150H. Of his close followers some stand out in spreading the Fiqh. The main ones are Abu Yusuf, Muhammad Sheybani, and AlLu'lu'i.
Abu Yusuf was the Chief Justice appointed during the times of Khalifa AlMahdi, then Khalifa AlHaadi, then Khalifa AlRasheed. The last was grateful to Abu Yusuf for he was the main influence in favor of the AlRasheed for the Khilaafah; therefore Abu Yusuf was elevated to be the Supreme Justice. Meanwhile Abu Yusuf, with full support of the powers of the government, appointed to the Justice Department only those who acknowledged the Hanafi Fiqhall others had either to change their Madh'hab or lose their job. Abu Yusuf had his own interpretation of the Hanafi Fiqh, and he wrote some books about the Madh'hab. His close student was AlSheybani, who had not reached his twenties when Abu Hanifa died.
AlSheybani was a good writer, and he wrote a good many books about the teachings of Abu Hanifa, thus making the biggest contribution to the Hanafi Madh'hab. Like Abu Yusuf, AlSheybani had his personal views and Fiqh points, and he expressed them when he wrote the Hanafi Fiqh. AlSheybani also studied under Malik Ibn Anas for 3 years and was affected by his methodology, thus he introduced Malik's method of Hadith selection in the emerging Hanafi Madh'hab.
The promotion of the Hanafi Fiqh by the government powers over an extended period of time popularized the Madh'hab; thus the Hanafi Madhhab slowly became mainstream. Unlike the Ja'fari Fiqh (which was adamantly independent of the government), the Maaliki and by now the Hanafi Madh'habs were eagerly embraced and espoused by the government in a move as a counterweight to the Ja'fari Fiqh, (that of Ahlul Bayt), because these two conformed to the policies and practices of the government. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:04pm
AlMadh'hab AlMaaliki was the product of the Fiqh (rules and regulations) as taught by Malik Ibn Anas. As in other Islamic Schools of Thought Maalik's Fiqh deals with tawhid, elements of faith, elements of worship (pillars of Islam), the halal and haram, ethics, dealing with other people (Mu'aamalat).

FEATURES of AlMadh'hab AlMaaliki The Maaliki School of Thought tends to emphasize the authenticity of the Hadith , the care in its selection, and the deductions there from. It also used some degree of Qiyas (Analogy) and Raa'y (Personal opinion). It does not acknowledge the Imamah of Ahlul Bayt. Malik Ibn Anas was supporter and a proponent of Ahlul Hadith. The Maaliki School of Thought began its popularity in the last quarter of the second century H.

Head of AlMadh'hab AlMaaliki 93179H
Born in 93H Malik Ibn Anas grew up at a time when the Fiqh of the Shari'ah was flourishing and Ahlul Bayt had a greater leeway to explain its detail since Benu Umayya's grip on power was waning. Malik Ibn Anas attended many of the discussion assemblies Imam AlSaadiq was giving. Malik Ibn Anas was 10 years younger than AlSaadiq, and lived to the ripe age of 86, when he died in 179H. Like Imam AlSaadiq, Malik spent all his time in Medina.
It is claimed that Malik Ibn Anas was a firm supporter of Ahlul Bayt and their cause. Malik gave full support to Muhammad Dhul Nafs AlZakiya when he revolted against the oppression of Benu Abbas in 144H. In 146H, because of that support (or because of some disagreement with the government) Malik Ibn Anas was arrested by the governor of Medina and lashed 50 times. That resulted in damaging his left arm which remained crippled the rest of his life.[10]
Malik Ibn Anas lived at a time when forgeries of the Hadith were widespread. Therefore he took great care in selecting authentic Hadiths, as a result his popularity began to increase. Many people started to quote him and study at his hand.
At the same time however, Khalifa AlMansoor was ever anxious to build forces to counteract the profound influence of the school of Ahlul Bayt. In 153H AlMansoor approached the 60 year old Malik Ibn Anas offering him a position to be Supreme Justice over Medina and Hijaz, but with a request for Malik to write a book in Fiqh, so that AlMansoor would enforce it over the whole Ummah. AlMansoor had one more request, however, that the book not mention even once the name of Imam Ali.[11]
Malik Ibn Anas agreed, sensing that his book, as supported by the government, would have immediate success. However, the downside to this was not mentioning Ali, but that would be the price to be paid against the advantage of spreading his Islamic knowledge.
The result was the book called AlMu'watta'. The Fiqh in Mu'watta' was later known as Fiqh of Malik Ibn Anas. It was spread and patronized by many rulers of Benu Abbas, and especially in Andalusia (Spain), North Africa, and some parts of Middle East. Malik Ibn Anas became the official high powered Supreme Judge for a long time. He was sponsored and patronized by Khalifa Al-Mansoor, then Khalifa Al-Mahdi, then Khalifa Al-Haadi, then (and especially so) by Khalifa AlRasheed. This support was done not due to what this Fiqh deserved but mainly as a counterweight against Ahlul Bayt and their enormous influence in the society.
Many Books were published as commentaries about AlMu'watta' and the school of Maaliki became one of the survivors of the many Islamic Schools of Thought at the time. What was crucial to its survival (besides its dynamism) was the official support and encouragement of the Abbasi government to spread it as far as possible.
Historically during this period there were many Schools of Thought of greater depth than the Maaliki, which even continued for a century or two but eventually died out because they insisted to be independent of government influence, therefore the government did not support them, thus leading to their demise. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:05pm
AlMadh'hab AlShafi'i was the product of the Fiqh (rules and regulations) as taught by Ibn Idrees AlShafi'i. As in other Islamic Schools of Thought AlShafi'i's Fiqh deals with tawhid, elements of faith, elements of worship (pillars of Islam), halal and haram, ethics, dealing with other people (Mu'aamalat).

FEATURES of AlMadh'hab AlShafi'i
AlShafi'i School of Thought stands inbetween the Maaliki and Hanafi Madh'habs in that it uses some of the ways of AlMaaliki Madh'hab and some of the Hanafi, i.e. less in the way of Qiyas (Analogy) and Raa'y (personal opinion). It excels in the technique of Istin'baat (deductive reasoning) for reaching a Fiqh verdict. Like other Sunni Madh'habs, AlShafi'i's do not acknowledge the Imamah of Ahlul Bayt, though all of them were supportive of Ahlul Bayt. The AlShafi'i School of Thought began its popularity around 190H and picked up steam in the century that followed.

Head of AlMadh'hab AlShafi'i: 150H204H
AlShafi'i was born in 150H, the same year in which Abu Hanifa died. He was from Quraish, a bright student with a dazzling personality. An orphan, AlShafi'i was cared for by his mother who brought him to Mecca when 10 years old. He joined Hudhayl tribe for 17 years (in the desert) to learn the flawless command of Arabic, literary or expression. In his late twenties by now, AlShafi'i settled in Mecca where AlShafi'i was enticed by friends to study Fiqh. Thus he joined AlZinji, learning at his and other scholars' hands. In his thirties AlShafi'i left for Medina to study at the hands of the aging Malik Ibn Anas, where he became very close to him. Malik even took care of the living expenses of AlShafi'i for 4 years until Malik died. AlShafi'i also studied at the hands of several of Imam AlSaadiq's disciples such as a) Ibn U'yainah, 2) Abu Ishaaq AlMadani, 3) AlZuhri, and 4) Ibn AlSilt AlBasri.
When Malik died, AlShafi'i had to work in Yemen to support himself financially. He was vocal against the harsh rule of the governor of Yemen. It is said that in a move to get rid of him, the governor wrote mischievous accusation about AlShafi'i to Khalifa AlRasheed. As a result, in 184H and along with 8 other people, AlShafi'i was taken to Baghdad chained and bound in fetters. He was closely questioned by the enraged AlRasheed, but AlShafi'i's eloquence and convincing manners were such that AlRasheed forgave him and set him free. The other 8 were not so lucky, for they could not defend their innocence that well, and were decapitated as per orders of the irrational Khalifa. (The Shafi'i was accused of loving Ahlul Bayt, since loving Ahlul Bayt was in opposition to the Khalifa policy or other Abbasi rulers, who posed as enemy No. 1 to Ahlul Bayt.)[12]
AlShafi'i stayed in Baghdad where he joined the circle discussion headed by AlSheybani (who was a student of Abu Yusuf and Abu Hanifa). AlShafi'i contested and debated with AlSheybani in his circle discussions, then began his own discussion assembly, giving If'taa' (Fiqh edicts). Both he and AlSheybani were active in writing books at the same time, though the Maaliki scholars at the time paid little attention to either of them. It is said that AlShafi'i studied under a total of 19 scholars.
AlShafi'i became quite popular in Baghdad, but he visited Egypt, which was the Maaliki strong hold at the time. In 198H, the 48 year old AlShafi'i left Baghdad again, for good, with an endor t from the Khalifa. He was accompanied by the new governor to Egypt, and stayed as a guest with an eminent family in Egypt, whereby he started his own circle discussion and gave If'taa'. This time he stayed in Egypt for about 6 years.
AlShafi'i is said to have written several books, and the book of AlUmm in 6 volumes is contributed to him, though after probing and research it was claimed to have been written by his disciples (AlBu'waiti and AlRabii).[13] As AlShafi'i became popular in Egypt, his discussion assembly attracted more and more students. He differed with AlMaaliki and Hanafi in many points, and his teachings began to have a distinct flavor. Just as his popularity was on the increase, he was beset with a long illness. At the age of 54, there came about hotly discussed difference between him and Maaliki adherents, especially after he criticized some Maaliki doctrines or beliefs. The matter was taken to the governor. Because of that, AlShafi'i was brutally attacked by the discontented Maaliki adherents, and he was *it on the head with a big iron rod (ironkey). AlShafi'i lost consciousness as a consequence, probably from fractured skull, and he died shortly after.[14]
AlShafi'i had a charming personality, a very attractive way of expression in pure Arabic, good poetry, and deep knowledge of the techniques of the various schools of thought at the time. He excelled in the criteria he put forth about Istin'baat (deductive reasoning) in reaching verdicts. AlShafi'i was a devotee of Ahlul Bayt to a great extent notwithstanding the government jaundiced eyes about anyone who declared any faith in them. The government took Ahlul Bayt as the enemy No. 1 solely because Ahlul Bayt rejected acknowledging the legitimacy of the rulers (Khalifa) as representing Islam. Ahlul Bayt never conformed to the policies of the rulers or their rule, thus the enmity and the collision.

HIGHLIGHTS of Shafi'i Madh'hab
The popularity of AlShafi'i Madh'hab was mainly due to the consistent and hard work of the students of AlShafi'i, famous among them were AlBu'waiti and AlMuzni , and Ibn Abd AlA'la . As AlMadh'hab AlShafi'i took roots, it gradually replaced the Maaliki Madh'hab in Egypt, then spread in Palestine and Syria, completely replacing that of Aw'zaa'i. It also spread in Iran and neighboring areas at the time. This Madh'hab was also endorsed by the governments of the time, especially that of Ayyubi. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:09pm
AlMadh'hab AlHanbali was the product of the Fiqh (rules and regulations) as taught by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. As in other Islamic Schools of Thought Ahmad Ibn Hanbal's Fiqh deals with tawhid, elements of faith, elements of worship (pillars of Islam), halal and haram, ethics, dealing with other people (Mu'aamalat).

FEATURES of AlMadh'hab AlHanbali
Unlike other Sunni Madh'habs, AlHanbali's School of Thought has almost no use for Qiyas (Analogy) or Raa'y (personal opinion), to such an extent that they even prefer narration of weak Hadith over Qiyas or Raa'y. It emphasizes taking the Hadith literally (blindly) to such an extent that they were called As'haab AlHadith . Ahlul Hadith were known long time before, but As'haab AlHadith was the result of its evolution.
Also like other Sunni Madh'habs, AlHanbalis do not acknowledge the Imamah of Ahlul Bayt, though Ibn Hanbal was very supportive of Ahlul Bayt. AlHanbali School of Thought began its ascendancy with the full patronage of Khalifa AlMutawak'kil around 235H, but it never became widely spread.

Head of AlMadh'hab AlHanbali: 164H241H
Ibn Hanbal was born in 164H in Baghdad at the height of expansion of the Islamic sciences and the glory of its culture. He was an astute and highly intellectual person with distinguished reputation. Ibn Hanbal grew up as an orphan, began his quest for Islamic learning at the age of 15, he learned at the hands of Abu Yusuf for a while, then AlShafi'i. In 186H the 22 year old Ibn Hanbal traveled to Hijaz, Basrah, Kufa, and Yemen in quest of learning though he was in poor financial straits. He learned at the hands of, a) Ibn U'yainah, b) AlZuhri, and c) Jarir Ibn Abdul Hamid among other outstanding scholar students of Imam AlSaadiq.
By the age of 50 Ibn Hanbal witnessed severe crushing measures by the Mu'tazila toward those who did not agree with their views that the Quran was Makhlooq (created piecemeal by Allah) according to the need of the time. As'haab AlHadith believed the opposite, that the Quran was whole and part and parcel of Allah. As a result, suppression by the Mu'tazila fully supported by the Khalifas (AlMaMoon, AlMu'tasim, and AlWaathiq) continued for about 20 years. It was a brutal suppression of any intellectual who did not agree with their view, and As'haab AlHadith became the culprit for decades.
In 218H along with many others, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal was arrested and was to be executed by Khalifa AlMa'Moon because he stuck to his own conviction and did not agree with the Mu'tazila point of view. It so happened that AlMaMoon died on an expedition just before he was to give the verdict for the execution of Ibn Hanbal. The following Khalifa, Al-Mu'tasim, had Ibn Hanbal in jail, interrogated him about his conviction, lashed him 38 times, but somehow he released him later from jail. The Khalifa became lenient with Ibn Hanbal since it is said that Ibn Hanbal was able to circumvent direct confrontation (though others say he was adamant in his views).
As a result Ibn Hanbal's reputation skyrocketed with As'haab AlHadith who shared his views. He became famous later on when Khalifa AlMutawak'kil around 234H took up the cause of As'haab AlHadith against the Mu'tazila, in a move to lure the general public to his side.[15] Ibn Hanbal became the symbol of As'haab AlHadith resistance to Mu'tazila orthodoxy.
While Khalifa AlMutawak'kil was the nemesis of Mu'tazila, he included the devotees of Ahlul Bayt as archenemy too. A period of unparalleled persecution and killing began to take place, as a result of which the Mu'tazila intellectuals all but vanished. With the cooperation of As'haab AlHadith a new phase of bloodshed began to take shape against any members or sympathizers of Ahlul Bayt too. AlMutawak'kil took them as a grave threat to his rulership, and he unleashed brutal and very harsh measures to anyone suspected of being loyal to Ahlul Bayt. These measures were to such an extent, that against the Shi'a there unfolded the Naasibi, (people who earned their living by making perverted stories and pernicious poems in denouncing and d*mning the Shi'a). Despite this, Ibn Hanbal was brave and outspoken in support of Ahlul Bayt. He was fearless and undaunted by the attitude of the Khalifa or the people around.[16] He even narrated more Hadiths of the Prophet (pbuh) on behalf of Ahlul Bayt than most of the Sihaah AlSittah, for such were his courage, virtue and nobility. And despite the fact that AlMutawak'kil was supporting him with 4,000 dirham every month and the auspicious attention he was giving him, Ibn Hanbal was uncomfortable of the association with the Khalifa, to the extent that he evaded and refrained from the bond.[17] Ibn Hanbal would accept the gifts from the Khalifa but would distribute them secretly to the poor.
Ibn Hanbal was a highly learned scholar in Hadith. He wrote the books of Manasik, (the major and the minor), but his distinction goes more toward the Mus'nad of Ibn Hanbal This book was not quite finished when Ibn Hanbal died at the age of 77, and the task of editing, reviewing, and completing it fell in the hands of his son Abdullah. Mus'nad Ibn Hanbal contained 40,000 Hadiths, of which 10,000 were repetitions, and a good many others were weak. It also contained many fabricated Hadiths that Ibn Hanbal did not put originally.[18] Ibn Hanbal claimed that he selected the Hadiths from among 750,000 circulating Hadiths at his time, the overwhelming majority of which were fake.
As'haab AlHadith took any Hadith literally [blindly] without giving due regard to the cir tances in which it was said nor its inner meaning. Unfortunately As'haab AlHadith abused much of the power at their hands and the destruction of life or property caused by them was instrumental in enraging the general public for a long time, becoming one of the reasons of the limited spread of this school of thought.

HIGHLIGHTS of AlMadh'hab AlHanbali
Under Ibn Hanbal many students learned his Fiqh and became famous later on. Chiefly they were AlAthram, AlMaroozi, AlHarbi, Abdullah Ibn Hanbal, and Salih Ibn Hanbal. They were very active in teaching the Hanbali Madh'hab afterwards though this school of thought never spread extensively. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:10pm
The Basic Elements of each Fiqh depended in descending order of importance on the following essentials:
Al-Aql (sound reasoning or perception of the Ja'fari Fiqh Specialists),
Ij'maa (consensus of the religious scholars, not to be exclusive of the Imams' teachings). *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:11pm
Ij'maa (consensus of the religious scholars),
Qiyas (analogy of decision), through the following steps:
Istih'san (equity),
Urf (common knowledge),
Raa'y (personal opinion). *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:16pm
Ij'maa (consensus of the religious scholars)
Qiyas (analogy), through the following steps:
Istih'san (equity),
Urf (common knowledge),
Consensus of Medina U'lamaa,
Massaa'lih Mursala (public interest),
Sad al-Dhari'ah. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:17pm
Ij'maa' (consensus of the religious scholars)
Qiyas (analogy of decision). *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:18pm
If'taa of Sahaaba (Companions),
Preference of weak Hadith over Qiyas (analogy),
Qiyas (analogy of decision), through the following steps:
Istis'haab, (association),
Massaa'lih Mursala (public interest),
al-Dharaa'i. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:20pm
Glossary for Chapter 1

Abu Yusuf AlQadhiStudent of Abu Hanifa, later appointed as Supreme Justice by Khalifas Mahdi, Haadi, and AlRasheed. He appointed only Justices subscribing to the emerging Hanafi school of thought.
Ahlul Bayt:Fatima and the designated twelve Imams from Ali to AlMahdi, who safeguarded the teaching of Islam and conferred it to the Ummah as Muham mad (pbuh) had taught it.
Ahlul Hadith:Those who emphasized the importance of Hadith selection and the Seerah in their jurisprudence; usually Malik's school, and probably Ahlul Bayt's.
AlAammah:General term used to refer to the common people or the general public.
AlAh'kaam:The detailed rules and regulations of the Shari'ah, according to the Ij'tihaad of the Jurist.
AlKhaassah:The term used for the Shi'a to mean: The Special, The Distinct, or The Elite; generally referred to the devotees of Ahlul Bayt.
AlMansoor:The second ruler (Khalifa) of Benu Abbas and the effective establisher of their rule.
AlNafs AlZakiyah:A great leader who revolted against the oppressive rule of Khalifa AlMansoor. Abu Hanifa supported his and his brother's revolts and probably for this support Abu Hanifa was imprisoned by AlMansoor, and died in prison or shortly after leaving prison of poisoning.
AlQiyas (The an*logy):Methodology of thought more often referred to by Hanafi school of thought.
AlRaa'y (The Opinionated):Methodology of thought often referred to by Hanafi and other schools of thought.
AlSheybani:Like Abu Yusuf, AlSheybani was instrumental in establishing the Hanafi school of thought.
As'haab AlHadith:Those who took the Hadith blindly, then identified themselves with Ibn Hanbal's Fiqh.
Baghdad:The town built by AlMansoor to be the capital for the Abbasi regime.
Basrah:A town in Iraq used to be an intellectual center for 23 centuries.
Benu Abbas:Descendants of Ibn Abbas (who was a highly scholarly person tutored by Imam Ali). Benu Abbas established their rule after toppling Benu Umayya.
Benu Umayya:A clan in Mecca who were the adversaries of Muhammad (pbuh), then accepted Islam. Afterwards they became the rulers of the Islamic nation. They consisted of Benu Sufyan and Benu Marwan.
Books of Usool:The famous 400 basic books written by the alumni of the Institute of Ahlul Bayt and were used as references afterwards.
Bukhari:The famous person who collected the Hadiths after a high degree of scrutiny. His book is one of AlSihaah AlSittah. He died in the year 256H.
Fiqh:Rules and regulations of Islam.
Ghulaat:The exaggerationists who falsely attributed unIslamic attributes to some Imams.
Golden Chain of Narration:The narration of Hadith and other Islamic matters by the persons of Ahlul Bayt.
H:Hijrah calendar.
Halal:What is ritually permissible in Islam.
Haram:What is Islamicly unlawful and not allowed, and is punishable.
Hijaz:The province including Medina and Mecca, was an intellectual center for about two centuries.
I'lm:Knowledge of the ways of Muhammad (pbuh), Sunnah, Hadith, Tafseer of the Holy Quran, Fiqh as well as the Prophet's Traditions.
Imamah:A fundamental component of faith in Islam according to the ImamiyahShi'a.
Ismah:Means that Allah has safeguarded all the Prophets and the Specified Imams who followed Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) from, a) religious error, b) sin, and c) forgetfulness.
Jabriah:Believers in absolute predestination.
Khalifa:The head of Islamdom who during Benu Umayya and Benu Abbas were usurpers of power in the form of monarchs.
Khariji:Outsiders, a movement detrimental to Islam, which lasted for 45 centuries.
Khilaafah:Rulership of the Islamic Ummah, supposed to be representing Muhammad (pbuh) after him. However, with the advent of Benu Umayya the Khilaafah became as a mundane rulership no longer based on Taq'wa.
Kufa:Kufa was the new capital of the Islamic Ummah during the times of Imam Ali, and it became an intellectual center for 23 centuries.
Madh'hab:Fiqh School of Thought in Islam.
Ma'soom:See Ismah, a person whom Allah safeguards from religious error, sin, and forgetfulness.
Murji'ah:An ideology encouraged by Benu Umayya since it held to the notion that Benu Umayya's rule was legitimate from Shari'ah viewpoint.
Qadariyah:Believers in unlimited free will.
Qum:Seat of learning in Persia, an intellectual center.
Shari'ah:Islamic Constitution in the Quran.
Shi'a:Believers in the teachings of Muhammad (pbuh) as passed down by Ahlul Bayt, and that Imamah is an indispensable part of the Islamic faith.
Taq'wa:Absolute consciousness of the creator, the perfection of execution of the Islamic injunction.
Ummah:Islamic society.
Zaid Ibn Ali:A highly respected person who revolted against the tyranny of Benu Umayya. He was the brother of Imam AlBaaqir. He was supported by Abu Hanifa.
Zandeeqs:Agnostic or atheist.

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:24pm
[1] Ma'rifat Uloom Al-Hadith, Al-Neisaaboori, Page 55.
[2] Al-Rowdhah, Ibn Ali Al-Neisaaboori, Page 275.
[3]Abu AlAbbas Ibn Uq'dah. Also in Mu'tabar, by Najm Al-Deen. Also AlMufeed. AlTibrisi, in A'laam AlWara, Section 3.
[4]Manaaqib, Shahr Ashoob. Also Al-Saadiq and the four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar, Vol. 1, Page 67.
[5] Al-Dhari'ah, Buzurg, Vol. 6 Page 301-374.
[6] Manaaqib Abu Hanifa, Al-Makki, Vol. 2, Page 59.
[7] Al-Tuh'fa, Al-Aaloosi, Page 8.
[8] Manaaqib Abu Hanifa, Al-Mowaffaq, Vol. 1, Page 173.
[9] Maqaatil Al-Talbiyyin, Abu Al-Faraj, Page 247.
[10] Al-Intiqaa', Ibn Abd Al-Barr, Page 43-44.
[11] Al-Imamah wal Siyasah, Vol. 2 Page 195.
[12] Al-Intiqaa', Ibn Abd Al-Barr, Page 96.
[13] Dhu'ha Al-Islam, Ahmad Amin, Vol. 2, Page 231.
[14] Tawaali Al-Ta'sees, Ibn Hajar, Page 86.
[15] Dhuhr Al-Islam, Ahmad Amin, Vol. 4, Page 8.
[16] Tabaqat Al-Hanaabilah, Ibn Abi Ya'la, Vol. 2, Page 120.
[17] Taareekh Ibn Katheer, Vol. 10, Page 239.
[18] Min'haaj Al-Sunnah, Vol. 4, Page 27. Also Adhwaa' Ala Al-Sunnah Al-Muhammadiyya, Page 293. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:31pm
this the work of Dr. A. S. Hashim
ashashim@islamicbooks.info blossom.GIF Shi'a-Sunni Dialogue at http://www.islamicbooks.info/H-21-Math'habs/ *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:37pm
Treasures of the Madh'habs

Main Sources for this chapter:
AlSaadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar.
Mafateeh Al-Jinaan, Abbas Al-Qummi.
Fiqh Al-Sunnah, Syed Saabiq.
Al-Madhaa'hib Al-Khamsah, Hashim M. Al-Hassani.
Seerah of the Twelve Imams, Hashim M. Al-Hassani. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:38pm
As the Islamic world branched out into Shi'a and Sunni, the basic understanding of Islam continued to be identical to all schools of thought. The Shi'a adhered to Imam Ali's explanation of the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh), they were named AlKhaassah, meaning the elite, the distinctive, or the special, but such a name was generic. It was after the 12th Imam (Al-Mahdi ) went into major occultation that the Shi'a became (specifically) known as the twelvers, Ithna Ashari , or Ja'fari . This name continues until to-day. The Zaidi and Isma'ili, branches of the generic Shi'a, appeared early and had a following in Yemen (Zaidi) and Indian subcontinent (Isma'ili) . Whenever we refer to Shi'a in this book we mean Shi'a Ithna Ashari (Ja'fari).
The present day Sunni used to be known as AlAammah, meaning the common man, then AlJamaah, and 150 years later as AlSunnah wal Jamaah which 100 years later was abbreviated to Ahlul Sunnah. They followed the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh) as explained by the Sahaaba and Tabi'in. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:40pm
The guiding force for Islam are the Holy Quran and Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh). The light of the Quran and Sunnah continue to invigorate and guide all Muslims. The Holy Quran and Sunnah constitute the very spirit of Islam, whatever the understanding of the Madh'hab of these two. Let us see what and how the two branches of Islam hold their belief: *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:41pm

SHI'I: A Shi'i person believes in:
the Quran,
the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), and
the teachings of the 12 Imams (immediate family of the Prophet (pbuh) in explaining Islam:
A Shi'i is a devotee of the Fiqh (Interpretation of the Islamic Law) as laid down by Ahlul Bayt.
A Shi'i takes the Directives of the Imams as binding,
A Shi'i recites the Du'aas composed by the Imams,
A Shi'i follows the Imam's theological explanations and their sayings.
A Shi'i believes in Imamah, that the 12 Imams were Divinely Commissioned, and they were specified by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).
A Shi'i believes in Ismah that all the Prophets and the Designated Imams are shielded by Allah from:
Religious Error, and
Forgetfulness. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:42pm
SUNNI: A Sunni person believes in:
the Quran, and
the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), and
A Sunni follows the Fiqh (Interpretation of the Islamic Law) as laid by the head of his school of thought.
A Sunni also follows the rulings (Sunnah) of some Khulafaa.
Though highly respectful of the Imams, a Sunni:
does not believe in Imamah, but he believes in Ismah of the Prophets *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:44pm
The belief of a Shi'i and that of a Sunni is an*logous and alike by about 90-95% degree. Some technical differences do exist however, though minor they are, notwithstanding the fact that the less educated Muslim tends to exaggerate. A good many people blow these differences out of proportion deliberately, often in a move for self-exaltation and to gain (false) glory. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:46pm
To shed a light on the matter, the similarities and the dissimilarities between the Shi'a and Sunni will be explained in this chapter briefly. These are graphically put in table I, II, and III below:

TABLE I, IMAN (Belief)
1. Holy Quran
2. Sunnah
3. Imamah
4. Imam's Ismah
5. Imam's Directives
6. Imam's Du'aa
7. Sunnah's teachings
By the Imam's (mostly)
By Sahaaba and Tabi'in
8. Tafseer
Mostly by the Imams
By various scholars
9. Fiqh
By the 12 Imams
By heads of Madh'hab
10. Ij'tihaad
Continues to be Open
Closed since the 5th Century Hijrah. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:49pm
or go here to see the clearer picture of the tables... http://www.islamicbooks.info/H-21-Math'habs/ *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:50pm
Understanding Each Other:
To have an understanding of the similarities and dissimilarities of the Shi'a and Sunni belief, each of the above points will be briefly explained:
The Holy Quran: As always the Holy Quran has been the beacon light and will continue to be so through eternity. The Quran is the same for the Shi'i and Sunni people.
The Sunnah: As always the Sunnah (Sayings and practices of the Prophet (pbuh) has been the guide to both the Shi'i and Sunni people.
Imamah: Imamah is specific for the Shi'a. For them Imamah is regarded as part of the Islamic faith, though their Sunni brothers do not believe in the concept. The Sunni hold the Imams in great respect, but they do not consider their Directives as binding. The Shi'a regard the Imams (The immediate family of the Prophet (pbuh) as Divinely Commissioned. They believe that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) had specified them, even named them as the Khalifas after him.[1] The Shi'a feel obliged to hold to the Imams and follow their Directives as religiously binding, not so the Sunni. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:53pm
Imam's Ismah: While the Sunni believe in the Ismah of the Prophets, they exclude the Ismah from the Imams. The Shi'a on the other hand believe that the Prophets as well as the Imams are within the bounds of Ismah. To the Shi'a, Ismah comes from Ayah Tat'heer, saying:[2]

''Verily, Allah has decreed to purify you, O' Ahlul Bayt, and sanctify you in a perfect way'' *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:57pm
Imam's Ismah: While the Sunni believe in the Ismah of the Prophets, they exclude the Ismah from the Imams. The Shi'a on the other hand believe that the Prophets as well as the Imams are within the bounds of Ismah. To the Shi'a, Ismah comes from Ayah Tat'heer, saying:[2]

''Verily, Allah has decreed to purify you, O' Ahlul Bayt, and sanctify you in a perfect way'' *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:58pm
Ismah consists of at least the following:
That Allah has protected the person (Prophet or Imam) from sin (therefore the person with Ismah can lead the Ummah toward the high Islamic integrity. Without Ismah, the leader can sin and people would imitate his sin),
That Allah has protected the person (Prophet or Imam) from religious error (therefore the person with Ismah can lead the Ummah toward the high Islamic integrity. Without Ismah, the leader can commit religious error and people would imitate his error),
That Allah has protected the person (Prophet or Imam) from forgetfulness (otherwise the man without Ismah can contradict his own Directives, leading to inconsistency). Also this is essential, for the Imams taught the Sunnah of their grandfather the Prophet (pbuh), over a period of 12 generations, 329 years. Not being forgetful is essential for their accuracy in quoting the Prophet (pbuh) and giving pristine information of his teaching over this 329 years. And it is Allah Almighty who had endowed this capacity to the Prophets and Imams, the Shi'a assert. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 05:59pm
Imam's Directives: Because the Shi'a believe in the Imamah, they consider the Imam's Directives and sayings as binding, i.e., of importance only second to the Hadith of the Prophet (pbuh). Therefore, to the Shi'a, a) the instructions, b) the gems of wisdom, and c) the recommendations of the Imams hold a lofty theological position. On the other hand, though the Sunni hold the Imams with reverence and high esteem, they do not consider their Directives as binding. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 06:01pm
Imam's Du'aa: . Because the Shi'a believe in the Imamah, they dearly hold to the Du'aas composed by the Imams. The Du'aas are extremely powerful, they reach out and inwardly connect the person to the Almighty in an exceptional manner. The Du'aas are extremely moving when read in their original language, Arabic. Unfortunately most of the Du'aas have not been translated to English as of yet. Outstanding among the Du'aas are: *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 06:04pm
* Du'aa Kumayl by Imam Ali, said on every Thursday evening, usually in congregation.
* Du'aa Al-Husain when he stopped on Jabal Arafat, in Mecca before leaving to Karbala in Iraq. It is recommended to be read the night before Eid al-Adha.
* Du'aa Al-Thamali, composed by Imam Zainul Abideen, to be read after Suhoor in Ramadhan.
* Risaala of Huqooq, (Epistle of Rights and Obligations) written by Imam Zainul Abideen, centuries before the Magna Charta was decided upon in England.
* Al-Saheefa Al-Sajjadiya, a treatise of Du'aas for various occasions by Imam Zainul Abideen.
* Du'aa Al-Sahar- by Imam Al-Baaqir, to be read after Suhoor in Ramadhan.
* Numerous other Du'aas by Imam Al-Saadiq and other Imams covering most occasions touching on human life.[3] *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 06:06pm
The source of reference for teaching the Prophet's Sunnah comes by two divergent ways:
The Shi'a devote themselves to explanation of the Sunnah mainly by the Imams. If the sayings or explanation of the Sahaaba and Tabi'in is confirmed by the Imams, then this is taken as authentic. If this explanation is not confirmed by the Imams, then the point remains questionable, as:
a. Possibly right.
b. Might be wrong. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 06:07pm
The Sunni follow the explanation of the Sunnah by the Sahaaba and Tabi'in. It is said that large part of the Sihaah Al-Sittah (some scholars estimate it as 70%) are from narrations by the students of Imam Al-Saadiq (300 scholar students). *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 06:08pm
Tafseer (Commentary): With the plethora of Tafseer of the Holy Quran:
The Shi'a hold to the source of the Tafseers by the Imams. The best known is Tafseer Al-Tibrisi and Tafseer Al-Meezan (parts translated to English). They are voluminous (often 30 volumes), with many historical references, theological discussions, and philosophical points. A one volume Tafseer by Mir Ali in English, is highly recommended to the serious reader. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 06:10pm
The Sunni refer to the various Tafseers available, well known among them are: Tafseer Al-Tibari, Tafseer Al-Razi, Tafseer Al-Aaloosi, Tafseer Syed Qutb. They come in many volumes, many awaiting translation to English. A one volume English rendering is Yusuf Ali commentary, an outstanding one. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 06:10pm
Fiqh: Fiqh is the result of interpretation of the Shari'ah and Sunnah according to the Ij'tihaad of the head of the Madh'hab. It is like the interpretation of the constitution in the US.: which results in the law. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 06:11pm
the Shi'a follow the Fiqh by the Imams, most of which was formulated by Imam Al-Saadiq. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 06:12pm
the Sunni each follows the Fiqh of the head of the specific Madh'hab consisting at the present time of:
1. Hanafi
2. Maaliki
3. Shafi'i
4. Hanbali. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 06:14pm
It is worthy of note that the lineage of the head of Madh'hab al-Ja'fari (Shi'a) goes to the Prophet (pbuh) and each of the Imams used to say that my father narrated through his father and he through his father and so on up to the Prophet (pbuh).[4] On the other hand, none of the heads of the Sunni Madh'habs could claim that their ancestors or their lineage went directly to the Prophet (pbuh). *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 06:15pm
Ij'tihaad: Ij'tihaad is a process for the scholars in Islam to solve intricate Fiqh problem specific to the period of time it was raised, thus Islamic matters continue to be up-to-date despite the changes in society during the march of years and centuries. Ij'tihaad was open to all Muslim and practiced by all scholars for the first 4-5 centuries Hijrah. Ij'tihaad encouraged independent scholarly thinking. Actually, each head of the Sunni Madh'habs was scholar in Ij'tihaad. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 06:17pm
The Shi'a: The Shi'a continue to exercise Ij'tihaad because it was open since after the Prophet (pbuh), and they care not for whatever arbitrary rule the Khalifa had put forth to stop it.
The Sunni: The Sunni practiced Ij'tihaad actively during the first 4-5 centuries after the Prophet (pbuh), but when the Khalifa (ruler) ruled that Ij'tihaad was to be stopped, they obliged by doing so. Thus from that time till now Ij'tihaad was stopped by the Sunni, though every once in a while there is an outcry to practice it again, since it is of such great significance to have Ij'tihaad. *

kekasih 7.11.10 - 07:27pm
TABLE II, IBADAT (Acts of Worship):
IBADAT Acts of Worship
THE SHIA Ja'fari (Ithna Ashari)
The 4 schools
1. Salat
Salat is the same in principle and creed, but differs in technique
See left
2. Saum
Saum is the same in principle and creed, but differs in technique
See left
3. Zakat
Zakat is the same in principle and creed, but differs in technicality
See left
4. Haj
Haj is the same in principle and creed, but differs in technicality
See left
5. Khums
Khums is applied in daily life
Khums is applied for spoils of war
6. Jihad
Jihad is a pillar of Ibadat
Jihad is not a pillar of Ibadat
7. Enjoining to the Good
It is a pillar of Ibadat
It is not a pillar of Ibadat
8. Prohibiting Evil
It is a pillar of Ibadat
It is not a pillar of Ibadat

kekasih 7.11.10 - 07:32pm
While the Shi'a and Sunni differ in their performing-technique of Ibadat, all elements of worship (Ibadat) are of the same source and principle. The Shi'a and Sunni agree (100%) on the Quran's Directives and implementation of the Sunnah. The 5% difference (the technical performance) can be traced to the various narrations and interpretation of these narrations for the specific Fiqh and according to its methodology or format. A short comment about these items is worth mentioning, reserving a detailed account for a later chapter of this book. *

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